Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Business systems in Japan and China Essay

Introduction After the World War Two, Japan embarked on a journey of reviving its economy. The fast industralisation process is nothing short of spectacular. Japan’s basic infrastructure was basically destroyed in the war and she grew from a war-torn state to a world leading economy in a few decades. This requires good company and government governance, in order to achieve this result. Japan is also a major technology and export hub in Asia and she is currently the world third largest economy by Gross Domestic Product. (World Bank, 2014). Prior to the economic reform of Deng Xiao Peng, the Chinese government has total control of all the State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) under the communist system. It is a very highly centralized system that only the Chinese State government has power and control over it.(Laaksonen, 1988) Under the reformation policy, individuals are allowed to trade and sell surplus products in rural area and small businesses are allowed in urban or city. This marks the start of the China’s Socialist market economy. As a result of the open door policy, Chinese economy grew from a third world country to the second largest economy of the world in less than four decades. (World Bank, 2014) Despite the great differences of these two economy, the fact that its governance and cultures are deeply influence by the idea of Confucianism. (Chan, 1986) Hereby, in this article, discussion will be separated into two parts that are based on the similarities and differences between the two business systems. Differences 1. Keiretsu Vs Reform Policy In Japan, Keiretsu formed the largest business group and its one of the key contributors to the Japan’s economy which usually employed Japanese style of management and system. Zaibatsu was the forerunner of Keiretsu which are family run and it is the main business system before Second World War. There are two types of Keiretsu: namely horizontally organized Keiretsu and vertically organized Keiretsu. In horizontally organized Keiretsu, capital and human resource are closely knitted together and cross directorships and holding of stock among group members are not uncommon. The cross-holding of stock among the top 6 corporate group was as high as 24% (Tokyo Business Times, 1989) in the late eighties. This allows the group to be very close  and strong. Some of the examples of company with this structure are Mitsubishi and Sumitomo. (Okumaru, 1976).The governing of company are handed to professionals or agents to prevent dispute among group members. In vertically organized Keire tsu, it is formed by a huge parent company. She has its own supply distributorships and suppliers. Every flow and operations of the company follows a top to down process so as to control inventories and manufacturing quality. Many small and medium sized enterprises in japan utilize this system. Some of the example of such company are Sony and Toyota. In 1979, China started her reform programme after the initiating of economic open door policy by Deng Xiao Ping. The state government vows to liberalise and modernised China’s key industry like agriculture, technology and defence. More autonomy are given to the State Owned Enterprise to manage their own division. For example: The State Owned Enterprises are given the rights to form their company structure in accordance to the needs of leaner production process or market maximization. Hence, workers are now able to choose and change job with respect to their interest and expertise. This highly promotes the effectiveness of the State Owned Enterprises. (Lichtenstein, 1993) The state government also implements the use of Profit and Loss contract (yinkuibaokan) whereby a portion of the profits are contributed to the state government and the remaining profit can be kept by the State Owned Enterprise. China’s state government also undertake a few other methods to reform, this includes the downsizing of the State Owned Enterprises , setting up of stock exchange in Shanghai and Shenzhen and transformed some important industry to shareholding companies so that it can trade. All in all, this gives rise to the socialist market economy in China whereby capitalism way of managing the economy is enforced. 2. Developing its own industries Vs Foreign Direct Investment Ever since the Second World War, Japan has decided to become an export driven economy, and the Japanese have been fast to recover its economy by competing fiercely in the ever increasingly saturated market. The products they are churning out are of good reliability and they often undercut its co mpetitors by a huge margin to win the contract. As illustrated in the case of Hitachi at a sales presentation in 1985, Hitachi stressed to undercut its competitors severely. (Fallows 1993) Japan owed its rapid industralisation process to the huge domestic exports. The export ranged from the early days textile to  automobiles and later on, high technologies products such as semiconductors. Japan invested heavily on research and development to create high value products to make it desirable to the world. As a result of the severe undercutting of competitors. Japan’s enterprise have to come out with several ways to enhance efficiency to ensure profitability. Toyota created a system called Just-In-Time (JIT) which emphasize on the redundancy of keeping live inventory. (Uno, 1987) It was first created in the 1950s and later slowly dispersed into the different industries and plants in Japan in the 1960s and 1970s. It requires close and collaborative relations with all suppliers for it to work. However, with good implementation, it can ensure lean production with little slack and good flow process. This process brings about the envy of the industrialised world especially in the United States. Other industrialised nations tried to emulate the success of JIT, but not always with positive results due to the poor implementation. Japanese companies also used Total Quality Control(TQC) in manufacturing. It is first coined by Professor William Demming of New York City but it is the Japanese that utilize it.The ideas of Total Quality Control is to have no or little tolerance for rework. Reworking a product are deemed as a wastage of time. By adopting a do it once, do it well approach, further time and cost can be saved to make the production lean. After the 1979 economic reforms by the Chinese state government, the state government allow Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to enter into Chinese market. It is the movement of long term foreign financing that allows a shareholding of at least 10% of the State Owned Enterprises. This usually includes the transfer of technology and know-hows to the host country from the Multi-Nationals Companies (MNCs). As a result of the transfer of technology, the host country in this case the State Owned Enterprises will have gained insights on the production process. Hence, further research and development by the State Owned Enterprises is possible. Also, in 1979, the state government created four Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in Guangdong and Fujian province to encourage the facilitation of Foreign Direct Investment that mainly foreign investment will stay in this four zones. The state government realizes that by creating four zones is not enough to open up the market. Therefore, in the 1980s wholly-owned foreign enterprises are allowed and also more east coast ports are opened up to encourage foreign trades and investment. China State government viewed  Foreign Direct Investment as a very important catalyst to improve its economy. Subsequently, foreign enterprises are given the same treatment as a State Owned Enterprise and the joining of World Trade Organisation in November 2001 makes a very huge milestone in China’s economic history. Due to rising manufacturing cost Japan industries, Japan has begun to pour Foreign Direct Investment into China to cut cost. As evidenced by (Kunii et al., 2002) , during the period of first six months of 2002 , Japanese firms concluded deals of $3.15 billion. This goes to show the importance of Foreign Direct Investment for both countries in a win-win situation. Japan can benefit from the low production cost and China can benefit from the capital inflow and technology transfer. As of 2012, China is the leading Foreign Direct Investment in the world. (Perkowski, 2012). 3. Socialist Market Economy Vs Capitalist Market Economy The socialist market economy is the only model that are used by the People’s Republic of China (PRC). It is based on the dominance of State Owned Enterprises and maintaining a free open market, its origins can be traced from the Chinese economic reforms introduced under Deng Xiao Ping. During the early stage of economic reform in China, socialism are deemed as the basis for the reform, and therefore has to adopt capitalist techniques to survive. It is also known as the social capitalism despite adopting the free market system of capitalism. (Schweickart, 2006) Japan adopted the system of capitalist market economy which got its influence from her western counterparts. It’s a system that encourage free trading in the market in the forms of products, shares and commodities. Despite Japan uses Keiretsu in their business systems, it is still by large using a capitalist system. The need for consumption of luxury products and export of domestic shows the use of capitalist system. Similarities 1. Intervention of government bodies Historically in Japan history since Meiji Restoration, Japanese government has always played a very important role in the industrialisation. To be able to play catch-up with the western nations, the government deemed the intervention necessary. It also enable the government to be strengthened through the lending of private funds and invest it in key industries such as  shipbuilding, communication in the Meiji’s government. The intervention of government in financing benefited the big groups of zaibatsu and later on Keiretsu. After the Second World War, the Japanese government once again realised the importance of state support for the companies and economies to grow quickly. (Johnson, 1982) In recent times, Japanese government agencies such as Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and Ministry of Finance (MOF) have been actively participated in business by giving funds and supports to industry that are of utmost national interest. On the other hand, big business can exert huge influence on the political scene by endorsing political candidate that are beneficial to the interest of the big corporation. With respect to Japan, Korean government intervention of chaebols (big conglomerate) are largely similar to Japan. In the earlier days, the Korean government invested heavily and provide financial aids to chaebols such as Lucky Goldstar and Samsung. With the strong backing of the government, these companies are able to flourish. (Song, 1990) By 1990s, the reforming of State Owned Enterprises especially small and medium state enterprises became a top priority for the Chinese state government. After a carefully study by the state government, a new reform system formed under the name of â€Å"the Regulations for Transforming Managerial Mechanisms of the State Owned Enterprises’ ( Liberation Daily, 1992). This includes of fourteen kinds of power to instill self-management. Even though, it’s a move by the Chinese state government to liberalized State Owned Enterprises. But, government steps by steps intervention of the process is still very much needed. Especially, during the early periods of reforms, they are many uncertainties and fluctuations in the market that requires government intervention to ensure the reformations process is smooth and steady. 2. Confucianism Influence All the major East Asian management system have been influenced heavily by the Confucian tradition. (Oh, 1983). This includes China, South Korea and Japan which has some olden Chinese co-relation. It does not only has heavy influence towards these countries culturally but also economically. For example: In Japan, huge emphasis is put on the seniority in both workplace or at home. Similarly, likewise for Korea. Respect are to be given to elders or person with high seniority. Individualisms and competitiveness are not  part of the teaching of Confucianism. In the economy of these East Asian countries, they are generally competitive and placed a lot of emphasis on individual actualization. Though, these countries are influence deeply by Confucianism, its more applicable to the management level which is at micro level. At macro levels, the government efforts and communitarianism could be the explanation for the competition in the world market. Conclusion In conclusion, this article has discussed about the similarities and differences between Japan and China. There are three main differences that are discussed in this article. Firstly, its Japan’s Keiretsu and China’s reform policy. Japan’s Keiretsu was the predecessor of zaibatsu and it’s the dominant force of Japan’s economy. Deng Xiaoping pushes for economic reforms and turned its communist economy to a socialist economy. Secondly, Japan invested heavily in the research and development of technology as to become world major exports nations. Through the process of undercutting its competitors, Japan’s enterprises utilize Just in Time process and Total Quality Management to ensure high efficiency and lean production cycle. On the other hand, China relied on Foreign Direct Investment to boost its economy. In the process of Foreign Direct Investment, not only it creates jobs for the country but also learn about foreign technologies through technology transfer. Lastly, the Chinese employed a socialist economic models which is often referred as state capitalism whereby the government still practiced one party communism. Japan on the other hand, support a free trade market which is similar to the capitalist systems in the west. The article also discusses the importance of government or state intervention of the economy. For Japan, the government provides good infrastructure and financial aids to industry that are deemed promising. In china, the Chinese state government slowly guides its economy through intervals of reforms to prevent the reformation for being too fast or slow. Lastly, Confucianism plays a big role in influencing the management style of Japanese and Korean organization but not so much in China State Owned Enterprises. References Businessweek, (2002). In Japan , China is Sexy. pp.22-23. Chan, W. (1986). Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism. 1st ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Johnson, C. (1982). MITI and the Japanese miracle. 1st ed. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. Laaksonen, O. (1988). Management in China during and after Mao in enterprises, government, and party. 1st ed. Berlin: W. de Gruyter. Liberation Daily, (1992). Regulations for Transforming Managerial Mechanisms of the State Owned Enterprises. Lichtenstein, N. (1993). Enterprise reform in China. 1st ed. Washington, DC (1818 H St., NW, Washington 20433): Legal Dept., World Bank. Oh, T. (1983). A Comparative Study of the Influence of Confucianism on Japanese Korean, and Chinese Management Practices. 1st ed. Honolulu: Academy of International Business Asia-Pacific Dimensions of International Business. Okumaru, H. (1976). Six Largest Business Groups In Japan. 1st ed. Tokyo: Diamond Publishing. Perkowski, J. (2012). China Leads In Foreign Direct Investment. [online] Forbes. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/jackperkowski/2012/11/05/china-leads-in-foreign-direct-in vestment/ [Accessed 12 Aug. 2014]. Schweickart, D. (2006). China: Market Socialism or Capitalism?. p.137. Song, B. (1990). The rise of the Korean economy. 1st ed. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. Tokyo Business Time, (1989). Intimate Links With Japan’s Corporate Groups. pp.14-19. Uno, K. (1987). Japanese industrial performance. 1st ed. Amsterdam: North-Holland. World Bank, (2014). Gross Domestic Product 2013. [online] Available at: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/GDP.pdf [Accessed 31 Jul. 2014]. Word Count: 2503 words

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Essay Hobbes and Goldman The Good Life and Political...

The nature of a good life and its relation to political legitimacy is a subject which both Thomas Hobbes and Emma Goldman examine in their writings. Hobbes claims that only basic survival is necessary to live a good life because ultimately life is more valuable than comfort. Goldman on the other hand claims that freedom is far more important than simply living and a good life can only be lived by someone who is free to do as they please. In order for a political theorist to understand how legitimate governments and communities aught treat their citizens these theories are essential. For example, if a community holds a Hobbesian view than they will have a strong authoritarian leadership, whereas in a Goldman inspired community would have†¦show more content†¦Stemming from his theories regarding the definition of a good life, Hobbes’ view of political legitimacy is very centered on the ability of the ruler to effectively govern. The first and most important aspect of H obbes’ view of legitimacy is the idea of a â€Å"social contract.† A social contract an agreement between those who are in power and those who are ruled which is a framework which one can view societal relations within. In Hobbes’ ideal government the citizens are free to do anything that is not proscribed by the state; however, if the sovereign creates laws or â€Å"chains,† citizens must accept them as legitimate because of the social contract that they tacitly agree to. Citizens give up their rights to resources and freedom of action in exchange for the benefits of peace as well as the protection of the sovereign. In essence, according to Hobbes, any government which can provide stability for its people is legitimate (although he also claims there may be benefits to an autocratic monarchy as opposed to more democratic forms of government.). Furthermore, Hobbes disputes the idea that people need to give explicit consent to be legitimately governed. In t he utopian â€Å"Commonwealth† that Hobbes proposes a ruler can become legitimate not only through a concordat with the populace but also through strength of arms. If a ruler acquires power though coercive means then, according to Hobbes, he has totalShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesGlobalization 16 †¢ Managing Workforce Diversity 18 †¢ Improving Customer Service 18 †¢ Improving People Skills 19 †¢ Stimulating Innovation and Change 20 †¢ Coping with â€Å"Temporariness† 20 †¢ Working in Networked Organizations 20 †¢ Helping Employees Balance Work–Life Conflicts 21 †¢ Creating a Positive Work Environment 22 †¢ Improving Ethical Behavior 22 Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 23 An Overview 23 †¢ Inputs 24 †¢ Processes 25 †¢ Outcomes 25 Summary and Implications for Managers 30 S A L Self-Assessment

Monday, December 30, 2019

Police Discretion And Criminal Justice - 1274 Words

Police discretion is a unclear term that has an appropriately vague explanation. It is stated as the decision-making ability given to police officers that permits them to determine if they want to engage in police procedure or just let someone go with a word of warning. How it seems in drill is altered from situation to situation. Police discretion is a extremely essential aspect in acts relating criminal justice. There has been a daily predicament regarding the enforcement of the law. Discretion in the broader awareness that can be declared as the individual’s knowledge to make a ethical choice based on the standard of procedures of the act. Throughout practising and training, the officers are given different scenarios that they possibly come upon when officers are out duty. However, the scenarios given are not exhaustive and the police officers usually are challenged with challenging situations that insist on their personal choices. The laws don’t go over the full characteristics, consequently there are contentiously new laws and laws being transformed, permit the police officers to use their own discretion. There are also scenarios in which the law is vague and the police officer will neglect the different version of the law and state his/ her discretion in arriving at a choice (Meares, 2013) The quality of the police work and the work surroundings involve the use of discretion. A police officers works in an environment where they are often alone in theirShow MoreRelatedThe Police Discretion And Criminal Justice System Essay949 Words   |  4 PagesReforming the Police Discretion Criminal justice system has three main subsystems: police, courts and corrections. Each subsystem has its particular duties, but they work together to meet the goals: doing justice, controlling crime and preventing crime (Cole, Smith, DeJong, 2015). 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Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Code Of Ethics And Systematic Ethics - 985 Words

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The code of ethics and systematic ethics trainings can diminish the inconsistencies from accounting policies. The study is important due its analysis of mechanisms and alternatives of decision-making, and the influence of code of ethics on chief officers’ strategic choices (pp. 484-485). The authors focuses on the problem: how accounting standards contribute to the professional judgment, company financial performance, and earning management. The authors discuss issues that arise because of the unethical financial reporting. Literature Review. The systematic review of literatureShow MoreRelatedEthics : Ethical And Ethical Dilemmas1473 Words   |  6 Pages Ethics Help the Helper in Ethical Dilemmas Fred L. Slack University of the Rockies Abstract In ethical decision-making, there is an established way to address resolving ethical dilemmas systematically and following established decision-making steps to resolve ethical dilemmas effectively. 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Friday, December 13, 2019

How to Create an Effective Technology Support Team Free Essays

How to Create and Effective Technology Support Team May 10, 2010 University of Phoenix People in every workplace speak of building the team, working as a team, and my team, but few understand how to create the experience of teamwork or how to develop an effective team (Heathfield, n. d. ). We will write a custom essay sample on How to Create an Effective Technology Support Team or any similar topic only for you Order Now Technology has become a critical need for any business to profit in a positive way. This research paper will explain a few key elements that are a requirement to have an effective technology support team. An explanation of how personalities can affect relationships within and beyond the technical staff. Belonging to a team, in the broadest sense, is a result of feeling part of something larger than yourself (Heathfield, n. d. ). Organization Structure Organization structure is very important in a team environment because it will help define and understand the team and team members of the organization. Appointing a team leader for the team is a powerful asset and will tend to keep everything in order within the organization. It is best to form the team with different abilities because it will create a more complete understanding of the requirements. The appointed team leader should provide some type of statement to the team members advising the team members of the goal and expectations of the team. It is very important to become acquainted with the team members so the motivation will be there to strive for the best. After the information is given questions are address then the leader will appoint all team members with their roles and responsibilities. This will avoid any overlap or extra responsibilities among whose job is to do what. Team Operation When a team is put together, it is extremely valuable to bring the team ogether in a project area. The proximity of the team members will provide a number of benefits. Interpersonal relationships will develop at a steady pace leading to more effective and timely communication of information. The team must remember that the team leader is not the manager of the team; however is consider a coach or facilitator. This is very important to remember so the team can operate together efficie ntly. Planning is another important part of the team operation because it will keep everything running smooth and on time. Planning helps the team understand the project objectives, customer requirements, goals, cost, and schedule. Communication Communication plays a major part in possessing an effective technology support team. The team represents the company and all the customers know of. It is extremely important for all team members to listen effectively to ensure the understanding of the customer needs. If the communication is not open and understood the team could fall apart. It is often impossible to fix a misunderstanding in which technology is concerned (Techsoup for libraries, 2009). If the team leader have not identified and communicate the needs clearly at the beginning of a technology project, there may be little or no room for changes later on (Techsoup for libraries, 2009). It can affect the entire company, employees, and customers. Software has so many dependencies that a small change may cause a number of consequences. It is much better to catch a minor issue at the beginning instead of at the end of the problem. Misunderstanding any communication within the technical realm can lead to a waste of time and effort. It is important to listen actively to ensure the clarity of the client to avoid troubleshooting a problem that is the wrong problem. This type of miscommunication will affect the end user and will cause a longer time frame for resolution. To ensure the communication is efficient the technical member will need to remember three important factors. First, ensure that they are aware of whom they are speaking with. They will need to distinguish if they are speaking with a client who is knowledgeable on a technical level or not knowledgeable on the technical level to determine how he or she will need to speak to the client. Second, the technical team member will need to know how familiar the client is with the technology library. By understanding what level the client is on concerning the knowledge the team member will be able to adjust the attitude and language given. Last, all the members of the team need to stay refresh with the basics of interacting with fellow team members, supervisors, and clients. Personalities Another element in building an effective technology support team is the consideration of the individual personalities of the team members (Kearns, 2009). This portion is basically on the team leader position because the team leader will need to know how the other team members will affect each other to avoid any personality conflicts. The team leader has to remember three questions to ask him or herself about the team members to ensure the entire team is on the same level. First, the team leader will need to know do each individual work well in a team environment. Second, will need to ensure all members can handle peer criticism constructively. Last, needs to make sure the team members’ goals and efforts are in line with the team and not for themselves. If none of the three questions are thought of, it can cause a high turnover rate and will cause difficulties with training. Technology is a must have in the 21st century now and possessing an effective support team is vital. Building a good team is the best thing a team leader can do to achieve a successful project. With the right attitude, a team will overcome almost any difficulty to succeed in its goals. In most projects there will be instances when only the determination of the team can overcome the difficulties and continue to strive for success (Lycos, 2010). Trainings will help assist with continuing the strong teamwork with the team and to have knowledge of any new technology release. Teamwork is the key to having a successful project and will continue to increase the business in a positive way. References Heathfield, Susan. (n. d. ). Twelve Tips for Team Building: How to Build Successful Work Team. Retrieved on May 11, 2010, from http://humanresources. about. om/od/involvementteams/a/twelve_tip_team_2. htm Kearns, William. (2009). Building a Technology Support Team. Retrieved on May 11, 2010, from http://www. articlesbase. com/technology-articles/building-a-technology-support-team-1594409. html Lycos Retriever. (2010). Team Building: People. Retrieved on May 11, 2010 from http://www. lycos. com/info/team-building–people. html TechSoup for Libraries. (2009). Building a Te chnology Team. Retrieved on May 11, 2010, from http://www. techsoupforlibraries. org/? q=cookbook-3/planning-and-decision-making/building-a-technology-team How to cite How to Create an Effective Technology Support Team, Essays

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Public Health and Obesity in UK and the US

Question: Analyse how and why the policies are similar and/or different in these two countries? Answer: Obesity is a major public health issue in global context, and the prevalence of this disease is affecting the mortality and morbidity rates in the developed and developing countries. Therefore, the governments of different nations are undertaking precautions by developing policies and implementing these in the national health care frameworks. Obesity is an emerging issue in the international health care framework. In UK, the obesity rate is enhancing, and the nation is considered as the third highest rate of obesity or excess weight. In the case of both male and female, obesity is counted within top five countries dealing with the high rate of obesity prevalence. Obesity is not only affecting adults, but the prevalence is addressed in children in an equivalent manner. According to Abdel-Hamid et al. (2014), obesity enhances the chance of other fatal diseases including major heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and high blood pressure as well as mental disorder including depression. In this essay, the development of obesity-related policies in two major nations, UK and US would be discussed, and the status of policies in these two countries would be compared. To understand and compare the status of obesity prevalence and the related policies in UK and US, at first, the understanding of obesity is needed. In U.S., according to the report of Ganter et al. (2015) 30.6% adults are obese, within which 5.1% are extremely obese, the rate of prevalence in children include 31.5% within the age of 6-19 years. Obesity is not only affecting individuals but is has become a social stigma. In U.S., the obese individuals are two times more likely to be affected by hypertension and three times more likely to have diabetes type II disorder. In the US the severe obesity in adults cost state medical programs about $8 billion in 2013. In England, most of the residents are overweight; it has been revealed that the two-third people are obese or excess weight. In comparison to UK, the obesity prevalence in UK is 61.9% in adults, whereas the obesity prevalence in children, within the age group of 2 to 15 years is lower than U.S. prevalence rate, it is 28% in U.S. In U.S. also, obese people has increased risk of having type II diabetes and heart disease as well as certain type of cancer. It also affects the self-esteem and mental health of obese people. It has been estimated that in the health problems associated with obesity or overweight costs more than 5 billion per year by NHS (Ghauri, 2012). Obesity is an increasing risky health concern. Hawkes, Ahern and Jebb (2014) opined that, obesogenic environment in the developed countries in encouraging the over-consumption of energy rich foods and discouraging physical activities, which is imposing people to the increasing health concern obesity'. Therefore, countries should develop policies regarding the restriction of marketing of unhealthy food to children, making affordable healthier food, more taxes on the unhealthy and sugary foods. People in both U.S. and U.K. there are a debate regarding the role of government in addressing obesity. Therefore, the role of government should be analyzed in policy development and implementation. It has been revealed that in terms of government's activity, the UK government has undertaken more active role in preventing obesity than the role of government in U.S. A wide range of agencies in U.S. and U.K. are dealing with different aspects of obesity issues including food assistance, marketing, food access, quality, public transportation, food labeling and research (Gov.uk, 2015). While assessing the policies and their roles in preventing obesity prevalence, the awareness about the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders of obesity is necessary. While assessing the stakeholders and their perspectives, the role of local and national government, local community, family, medical professionals, food habits of the locality and the role of food advertising should be addressed. In this context, the role of advertising of food staffs has a greater power in enhancing the rate of obesity in both adults and children. In the case of childhood obesity in UK, schools have a major role in promoting healthy diet and thereby reducing the consumption of high-energy foods which enhance the rate of obesity. In U.K. studies of stakeholders, demographic differences have also shown major role in influencing the food habit of people. In a survey it has been revealed that, 79% parents reviewed their irresponsibility leads to the obesity syndrome in a child (Lund, 2009). On the othe r hand, schools have been shown to be responsible for 52% and the food manufacturers are 43% responsible for the prevalence as well as the prevention of the childhood obesity. In addition, U.K. survey revealed 33% role of government and 32% role of media, 28% role of supermarkets and 23% role of broadcasters in the increasing rate of obesity prevalence rate in U.K. In this context, parents are seen to be over-confident about their food habits and their most of the middle-class parents are not fully aware of the causes and effects of obesity, who are aware of these facts are not fully exclude whole categories of foods rather they limits HFSS foods, but prefer pre-packaged or chilled foods, which are not so healthy for the children. According to the guidelines of WHO, the schools in both UK and US are involving different health promotion for giving awareness to the pupils about the risk factors and causes of obesity. However, there are financial barriers to providing healthy foods, however, sometimes schools lack control over food provision. There is a major role or television advertising on the obesity-related health issues. Television promotes frequent snacking, pre-prepared meals, fast foods, and includes the excessive exposure of the HFSS food product's advertisements (McAllister et al. 2009). In a survey based on global perspective, the adults and children showed the need for ongoing support for sustaining behavioral changes during the treatment of the obesity and health care professionals suggested that, the self-management based health interventions are more important for controlling the obesity prevalence rate. In UK to promote healthier food choices, Food standard agencies also have a major role. In com munity stakeholder's perspective, one of the major constrains of the policy making, and implementation is the social and economical status of people. Community programs are reported to make successful results in controlling obesity in the specific community. The government of UK implemented different health and lifestyle change policies for ensuring effective and healthy food choice s of people. Governments have a wide power in controlling obesity by the legislative frameworks and policy implementation. In the US also, government is implementing new trends in the physical education for children, after school activities and primary preventive policies for obesity and healthy food habits (Meikle, 2015). Dinning in restaurants and fast-food centers have become a regular culture among the people. Researchers found that this culture or habit has contributed severely to spread the epidemic of obesity. However, dining in fast food restaurants has done more harm than dining in normal restaurants. Local reports show that dining in a fast-food restaurant allows a person to consume 200-300 kcal while dining in a normal restaurant allows the visitors to gain 24kcal, which is negligible. It can be said that reduction in the frequency of physical education is another reason of obesity among the people. However, some reports have argued that nowadays people are participating more frequently in any sports event. But the increasing amount of obesity is telling that participating more in sports events has not helped to cause of preventing obesity (Musingarimi, 2008). UK has been enlisted as the third highest nation for high prevalence of obesity. The UK has brought the obesity-related disparate activities under the national strategy, reflective of the more perpendicularly integrated system of the country while compared with the status of the United States. On the other hand, in U.S. the state and local governments are assuming a greater role in the obesity intervention, while decentralizing the decision making and characterization of US health, other policies and education. In U.S. the nonprofits and philanthropies funders for obesity prevention are also playing important roles in implementing policies, research, and advocacy (Nap.edu, 2016). In UK, the obesity-related policies are implemented via three major roles of British Government; generating a coalition for change, contributing to delivery and support programs and exercising leadership. Based on the current trends, in January 2008, the British government undertaken Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives policy with an investment of 372 over three years; the primary focus is children. The second major role of UK government is the creation of coalition for changing the society-based broad improvements. A cross-government obesity unit known as the coalition for better health' reported to the department of health and for children department. Childhood obesity is one of the major priorities within the Public service agreements, which has been set as the government-wide goals for three years period. Besides the national government, the coalition encompasses business, the third region including nonprofit and civic organizations and the greater public (Noo.org.uk, 2016). The Coalition for Better Health works with these groups in the social campaign known as the Change4Life. The Healthy Weight, Healthy Live policy identifies the biological, cultural and environmental factors contributing to obesity and supporting programs and policies in preventing weight problems in early childhood, promoting healthy food choices, creating incentives for better health, building physical activity into regular life and providing personalized advice and support for obese people. This strategy includes involvement of the academic community, a network of regional obesity leading to the establishment of supporting public health directors and knowledge sharing within each region through regional obesity policies. The third role of UK government is to provide supporting programs in implementing Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives, thereby strengthening the provision of information for best practice, peer support and research findings (PBS NewsHour, 2016). In the US, CDC has been developed effective tools for preventing obesity including a serious of maps. The major role of CDC policy is to monitor epidemics and recognize the effective strategies implemented at state and local community levels including reduction of sugar-sweetened beverages and encouraging physical activity and reducing television viewing. The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) brings researchers on particular issues and research potential investments. Additionally, the Federal Trade Commission considers voluntary standards for foods advertised to young ones. There is a major role of philanthropies in obesity prevention in the US, for example, RWJF has allocated $500 million to reduce childhood obesity by 2015 through 5 years (RWJF, 2009). Both UK and US people are suffering from serious health problem because of obesity. However, both countries have applied different health policies and strategies to deal with those problems. This part of the assignment will focus on comparing those health strategies of those two countries (Youth et al. 2005). UK government has undertaken three strategies to fight with obesity problems. Those strategies are exercising leadership, creating a coalition for change and offering delivery and support programs. Based on the data of Foresight report, in the year of 2008, the British government adopted the Healthy weight and healthy Lives methods to fight against the rising problems of obesity and overweight. UK has made an investment of 600 million to prevent obesity in the children. According to Sedghi (2014), increased breastfeeding, increased physical activity, and more precise food labeling may play a major role in preventing obesity in the citizen on UK. To gain improvement in each society in UK, the government has created a coalition for change. The government has established a cross-government obesity unit" the coalition for better health" that reports directly Department of Health and Department of Children, local schools, and families. This unit also works with other agencies related to the environment, planning, transport and other salient areas. However, Government is giving more priority to childhood obesity problems (WSJ, 2016). The third strategy that British government adopted is relevant programs and services to implement healthy weight, healthy lives. These services serve to prevent obesity at its early stages by advising healthy eating, activities that are more physical, etc. Local delivery of programs has been strengthened by the provision of data and other research findings (Stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk, 2016). On the other hand, US have adopted a CDC obesity map to share knowledge about obesity to their citizens. CDC has created a series of maps that exhibits the increase in the prevalence of obesity by state and by year.As the maps change colors from year to year, and the citizens can witness how obesity is affecting every state in the country. In the US, some federal agencies and other entities are also playing important roles in addressing the epidemic. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services are offering economic support to the poor families to improve their health. CDC's another role is to monitor the overall condition of obesity in the country. Based on the data they decide whether to increase pricing for sugar-sweetened foods or not (Staniford et al. 2011). In conclusion, it can be said that, obesity is an emerging health issue, which is becoming one of the most prevalent health issues in developing as well as developed countries. It has been revealed that, this disorder is affecting the economy of health care framework in different countries. Therefore, nations are attempting to develop effective health policies for preventing and reducing the prevalence rate of obesity. In this essay, the health policies related to the major health issue obesity in UK and US has been discussed and compared. From this essay, it has been revealed that, the government has been taken significant initiatives for combating with this major health issue. However, the health policies and the role of government are more visible and active in UK in comparison to the US. Reference List Abdel-Hamid, T., Ankel, F., Battle-Fisher, M., Gibson, B., Gonzalez-Parra, G., Jalali, M. et al. (2014). Public and health professionals misconceptions about the dynamics of body weight gain/loss. System Dynamics Review, 30(1-2), 58-74. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sdr.1517 Ganter, C., Chuang, E., Aftosmes-Tobio, A., Blaine, R., Giannetti, M., Land, T., Davison, K. (2015). Community Stakeholders Perceptions of Barriers to Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Families, Massachusetts 20122013. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12. https://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd12.140371 Ghauri, Z. (2012). A Comparison of Dividend Policy of UK and US Banks over the Period 2003-2007 from Shareholder's Point of View. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1321451 Gov.uk,. (2015). 2010 to 2015 government policy: obesity and healthy eating - GOV.UK. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/2010-to-2015-government-policy-obesity-and-healthy-eating/2010-to-2015-government-policy-obesity-and-healthy-eating Hawkes, C., Ahern, A., Jebb, S. (2014). A stakeholder analysis of the perceived outcomes of developing and implementing Englands obesity strategy 20082011. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 441. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-441 Lund, J. (2009). Financial reporting and disclosure requirements for trade unions: a comparison of UK and US public policy. Industrial Relations Journal, 40(2), 122-139. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2338.2008.00516.x McAllister, E., Dhurandhar, N., Keith, S., Aronne, L., Barger, J., Baskin, M. et al. (2009). Ten Putative Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic. Critical Reviews In Food Science And Nutrition, 49(10), 868-913. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408390903372599 Meikle, J. (2015). WHO report: 74% of men and 64% of women in UK to be overweight by 2030. the Guardian. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/may/05/obesity-crisis-projections-uk-2030-men-women Musingarimi, P. (2008). Obesity in the UK: A Review and Comparative Analysis of Policies within the Devolved Regions. The International Longevity Centre - UK. Nap.edu,. (2016). 3 Government Structures to Address Obesity | Perspectives from United Kingdom and United States Policy Makers on Obesity Prevention: Workshop Summary | The National Academies Press. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://www.nap.edu/read/12861/chapter/5 Noo.org.uk,. (2016). International Comparisons :: Public Health England Obesity Knowledge and Intelligence team. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://www.noo.org.uk/NOO_about_obesity/adult_obesity/international PBS NewsHour,. (2016). How U.S. Obesity Compares With Other Countries | PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/how-us-obesity-compares-with-other-countries/ RWJF,. (2009). Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2009/01/local-government-actions-to-prevent-childhood-obesity.html Sedghi, A. (2014). How obese is the UK? and how does it compare to other countries?. the Guardian. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2014/may/29/how-obese-is-the-uk-obesity-rates-compare-other-countries Stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk,. (2016). Child obesity - food advertising in context. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/market-data-research/other/tv-research/food_ads/ Staniford, L., Breckon, J., Copeland, R., Hutchison, A. (2011). Key stakeholders' perspectives towards childhood obesity treatment: a qualitative study. US National Library Of Medicine National Institutes Of Health Search Database. WSJ,. (2016). The Experts: What Role Should Government Play in Combatting Obesity?. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323741004578419031512580080 Youth, I., Koplan, J., Liverman, C., Kraak, V. (2005). Local Communities. National Academies Press (US). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83817/

Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Spread of Religions Essay Example

The Spread of Religions Paper Short Writing Assignment # 2 Topic: The Spread of Religions 11/20/2011 Question 1: How did Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam spread across the world, and why are they practiced so far from their origins? Answer 1: Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam spread across the world by use of four common practices. Missionaries spread the faith to new areas. These missionaries adapted their message to the existing culture of the area and adopted elements of existing religious traditions. Pilgrimage was encouraged and allowed the pilgrim to express devotion through the hardships of travel and expand their world-view. Through the use of relics, people were allowed a personal connection to the story of the religion. They are practiced all over the globe, far from their origins. One reason is forced conversion such as the conversion of the Saxons by Charlemagne under threat of death. Another is diaspora such as when the Romans expelled the Jews from Judea and they scatted all over the earth. Question 2: How did these three major world religions change and adapt to diverse cultural circumstances? Answer 2: Buddhism adapted the Chinese culture in China and flourished there to an extent that China became the center of pilgrimage and dispersion even though India was the source. It adapted to Chinese culture easily because the Chinese idea of Wuwei was very similar to the idea of Nirvana as taught by Buddha. Christianity adapted to the indigenous religions in many ways. We will write a custom essay sample on The Spread of Religions specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Spread of Religions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Spread of Religions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Just a few: The Church of the Holy Sepulcher was once the site of a shrine to Aphrodite. Christmas is now the celebration of Christ’s birth even though no one knows the day he was born. European Christians absorbed their old pagan tradition of the celebration of Yule into the practice of their new religion. Sufi missionaries adopted local cultural practices into the practice of Islam to attract converts. Question 3: Why did Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam emerge when and where they did? Answer 3: Each religion spread mostly in near proximity to its source: Buddhism throughout eastern Asia from India to China then on to Japan and Korea. Islam spread from Arabia through western Asia and across North Africa. Christianity spread across the Mediterranean from Judea then through Europe during the dark ages when Europeans needed a sense of unity and stability after the loss of the same after the fall of the Roman Empire. Europeans then carried it with them when they settled the New World. Question 4: How did Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam interact with, provide justification for, and conflict with various states and empires in Afro-Eurasia? Answer 4: Buddhism became the state religion of China as the nobles embraced and patronized it. Christianity became the state religion throughout Europe after the nobles embraced it then forced the conversion of their subjects as in Kiev and the mass conversion of the Saxons under the threat of death. Islam supports trade so Arabian traders spread it throughout their travels.